In the first part of this article I have demonstrated how Aristoteles describes notions and categories connected with the field of morality and happiness. For him, when distinct disciplines have their own specific aim, subject and method, then our way of speaking and writing in every branch of knowledge should be analogous with its pertinent complexity.
In the First Book of Nicomachean Ethics that can be considered as the introduction of Aristotle to this treatise, with different wordings but a shared tenet many times he mentions to the methodic points that should be taken into consideration by his students at the school and readers of this writing. For these points are materialized and manifested in the teaching, speaking and writing of its maker and introducer too, and we should not take them at face value. As a result, having a precise conception and understanding of these points that function as guiding steps are very crucial for according to Aristotle, “well begun is half done”.
In these times, with great anguish and hate towards politicians, I find it interesting to philosophize how the ideal politician should be?
Philosophy is the dialogue between human beings ourselves about the nature of the world and the role of human beings in this reality. In this issue, the existence of the world and human beings itself are two main streams of philosophy for over two thousands year. My article will focus on the second part with a specific question: what is the motivation of human act? When we do a particular action, without any mental problems or hypnotization, we always do it with a precise motivation which pushes our desire and physical action to pursue a purpose. The complex of many intentional purposes leads us towards the final purpose of all human beings’ essence. This unstoppable thinking and practicing process expresses some philosophical questions in ethics (about human’s moral and virtuous actions), in social philosophy (about the effects of a particular context or a particular action), in philosophy of laws (how can we judge an action if it is wrong or right) and in metaphysics (what the final purpose really is). There are three ideas I will investigate in my article: First, the Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which is the popular and frequent notion to describe the motivations of human’s act, especially in the aspect of the satisfaction of needs. However, this “external standpoint” is merely limited when being used to understand the final purpose in human act, but too narrow to consider the effects of social environment and specific context of the action as well...